The Question: Which continent has more than 12,000 cubic kilometers of water available per year? Answer: The correct answer is Asia.
The right answer is Asia. Although a large part of our earth is covered with water, a vast part of it is in the oceans which can’t be used directly. We need high-end and expensive equipment to separate salt from the expensive water. Besides, not all countries have an ocean at their reach and can be surrounded by lands or deserts.
On the other hand, the majority of freshwater is available in the form of snow, rain, or ice. This water can be involved in the water cycles to a great extent. But, precipitation is not the same all around the world due to several factors. Egypt is a country with the lowest precipitation. Likewise, Arabian Peninsula comes under the top countries that depend on the desalination process with the same high-end expensive equipment.
You can find several such areas which witness the lowest rainfall while there are areas with the highest rainfall ever recorded. For an instance, the Asian continent generally has around 12,000 cubic kilometers of water every year. However, southern regions are much wetter in Asia when compared to that of the northern ones.
One of such counties which witness variable rainfall includes Africa, the second largest continent. But, the same Asian patterns repeat in this continent as well. Most of the northern areas are very dry compared to the tropics and south.
Not only Asia and Africa, but even America also follows the same pattern for the availability of water. Thus, Northern America is much drier compared to Latin America which often experiences a more humid climate. Therefore, the water availability depends on what country you live in.
But some countries are wealthier and know the value of water conservation. The common reason for such countries which promote conservation is they may have faced droughts before.
Apart from this, Countries which have drier parts like deserts are seemingly gaining knowledge about the conservation methods. Africa is one such continent with little rainfall, but tropical rainforests in Africa receive the highest level of rain throughout the year.
Well, evaporation is a major factor in this case. For example, Europe is a dry place like Africa which receives less rainfall per year. But, as it is not as hot as Africa, less evaporation helps them in better conservation of water.
Apart from all those factors which control the water availability in the country, population density is a crucial factor. With the increase of population density, water availability reduces to a great extent. But, people in such areas are more aware of the need for water conservation. They tend to save water in every task and also use good alternatives.
On the other hand, there are places with strict water restrictions as they lack fresh water for usage. They take such steps to prevent the worst-case scenario of water outage and control the present situation to their best. Therefore, the demand for desalination plants is increasing day by day in many countries to balance the water supply all around the area.